I got up early this morning to watch two of my clients compete in the Marine Corps Marathon here in DC. The weather was beautiful, so I took my Flip Camcorder to get some video of the event. I shot over 30 minutes of video at Mile Marker 1, and headed to the next viewing spot at the Lincoln Memorial. While crossing the Memorial Bridge, I decided to shoot some video from the side of the bridge of the runners below. Unable to get the exact shot I wanted, I decided to stand up on one of the benches next to the railing.
My partner joked at the time that I better not fall into the Potomac River (foreshadowing, anyone?) While framing the shot, I walked along the bench to get a better angle. This would lead to my worst electronics mishap since the Sony Walkman incident of 2001 (see Ipod article). Unfortunately, I misjudged the length of the bench as I was zooming in to video the runners. I found myself stumbling forward, but managed to grab onto a pillar of the bridge. My Flip Camcorder, however, was not so fortunate. I watched in shock and horror as I lost my grip on it. The Flip, living up to its name, flipped into the air, and promptly fell to its death in the Potomac below.
Have you ever been left speechless? Now I know how a little kid feels when he accidentally drops his ice cream cone on the ground.
The moral of the story? You know those wrist straps that came with your camera and small camcorders? I fully understand now the importance of using them!
I was lucky enough to have 8th row seats for the Tina Turner concert in DC, and she is amazing. How many 69-year-olds do you know that can pull off wearing a mini-skirt and look fantastic? She is proof, along with Jack LaLanne and many others, that age is just a number. You can be in great shape and be your best at any age! It takes a lot of hard work, but it’s well worth it, as you can tell from the picture.
By DSM Fitness|
2018-06-15T17:47:34+00:00 June 17th, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on If This is What 69 Looks Like, Sign Me Up..
Cardiovascular training is one of the key components of an effective workout program. Whether you are training to lose weight, add muscle, increase definition, or simply to improve your heart and lung function, aerobic routines are a necessity. The key is to determine how often, at what level, and of what duration (the familiar formula of FIT-frequency, intensity and time). An examination of each of these factors will provide guidelines for setting up your own personal program.
This will be determined by your current fitness level, exercise history, and goals. Someone who wants to lose a significant amount of weight will need to perform cardiovascular exercise 3-5 times per week. The bodybuilder looking to increase definition will probably be aiming for 2-3 times per week, in order to maximize fat loss while retaining muscle. The key is to gauge results each week, and adjust the program accordingly. The weight loss candidate who has a goal of losing 2 pounds a week , but finds himself falling short of that goal, will need to look at adding an additional session or two. The bodybuilder trying to achieve greater muscle definition may have to cut out a session if he finds he is losing muscle size.
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends exercising at an intensity of 60%-90% of maximum heart rate, or 50%-85% of heart rate reserve (Karvonen Formula). What exactly does this mean? Each method has a formula to determine your proper range.
Target Heart Rate is determined by multiplying your maximum attainable heart rate by the upper and lower ranges:
(220-Age) x 60%= Lower Limit
For example, a 35 year old would have a target heart rate range of 111-167 beats per minute. The 220 figure in the formula is a standard based on the assumption of the maximum heart rate of a baby, and each year this rate decreases by one beat.
Target Heart Rate using the Karvonen Method (Heart Rate Reserve)
This formula is a little more involved, as it takes into account your resting heart rate. Resting heart rate is best measured first thing in the morning, before you get out of bed. Take your pulse by pressing your index and middle finger at the wrist (on the thumb side of your hand) or at the carotid artery on the neck. Take a 10 second count, then multiply by 6 to get a 60 second count. This is your resting heart rate. It’s best to do this 3 days in a row, then average the readings to get an accurate resting heart rate.
For the following example, let’s assume your resting heart rate is 60bpm (beats per minute), and your age is 35:
RHR (Resting Heart Rate)=60
MHR (Maximum Heart Rate)=220- your age=220-35=185
HRR (Heart Rate Reserve)=MHR-RHR=185-60=125
Now you can calculate your training heart rate:
(HRRx50%) + RHR = Lower end of range
(125Ã—50%) + 60= 123
(HRRx85%) + RHR = Upper end of range
(125Ã—85%) + 60 = 166
This method would yield a range of 123-166 beats per minute.
The Karvonen Formula is considered the more accurate measure of heart rate, but the first formula is the most simple to use. What exactly is the purpose of the training ranges? In order to get an effective workout, it’s necessary to get your heart rate up to at least the lower end of the range (aerobic threshold), where there is enough stress to produce improved cardiovascular strength. The upper end of the range is the maximum limit at which you want to stress the cardiovascular system-beyond this range produces no further beneficial effect, and can be taxing on the heart.
An aerobic workout has 3 parts: the warm-up, length of time in target heart range, and cool down. The warm-up is done to increase core temperature, and warm up muscles and connective tissue. This will decrease the chance of muscle and heart strain, and should last from 5 to 10 minutes. During this time, heart rate should be gradually raised until you reach your target training range. This is followed by at least 20-30 minutes in your range, ending with a 5-10 minute cool down. The cool down is the most important of all, gradually lowering your heart rate to avoid straining the heart and prevent blood pooling. Blood pooling is a condition where the blood that your heart has been pumping out to the extremeties hasn’t had enough time to return to the heart, which could result in fainting or a possible coronary incident.
So what’s the best length of time for you? Longer sessions are necessary when exercising at a lower intensity, to make the most of fat and calorie burning. This is a safe structure for seniors and beginning exercisers. More advanced participants should aim for a higher intensity and shorter duration, to maximize fat burning and minimize muscle loss.
THE MYTH OF THE FAT BURNING ZONE
Unfortunately, this myth still persists and is evident in many health clubs. Pass by any cardio area and you’ll see lines of people working out a a very low intensity for long periods of time. Inevitably, these same people will wonder why they’re not losing weight or body fat, even though they’re training in the “fat burning zone.” Yes, it’s true that your body will burn a higher percentage of calories from body fat when exercising at a lower intensity during aerobic activity. But, at a higher intensity, you’ll burn more calories. Although a smaller percentage of calories will come from body fat, it’s a smaller percentage of a larger number. Which means that you’ll actually burn a larger number of calories from body fat! Step up the intensity of your cardio exercise, and you’ll find you can shorten the workouts and achieve greater results.
Target heart rate ranges are not always the most accurate measure of training intensity. Certain medications (especially those for blood pressure, such as beta-blockers) can produce an artificially low heart rate. In this case, one should follow the guidelines of their doctor regarding heart rate. The Borg Scale, or Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), is an alternate or complementary method of measuring exercise intensity. Based on a numbered system from 6-20, it estimates intensity from very, very light at the lower end of the scale to very, very hard at the upper end. The Revised Scale estimates effort and runs from 1-10, with 1 being nothing at all, a 5 is strong, and 10 is very, very strong. This can aid an exerciser in gauging how hard they are working, and avoid overexerting.
USING A HEART RATE MONITOR
I recommend that every one of my clients conduct their cardiovascular training using a heart rate monitor. A monitor provides a continuous readout of your heart rate, eliminating the need for trying to take a pulse during exercise. This constant feedback allows you to adjust the intensity every minute if necessary, which would be a challenge with pulse taking. The readout is more accurate than hand sensors on cardio equipment, as the strap is worn next to the skin, directly under the chest. It’s convenient for outdoor exercising, such as jogging ,bike riding, etc. Otherwise, there’s no way to measure the effectiveness of these activities with much precision.
Cardiovascular exercise requirements vary by individual, but are necessary for progress in any training regimen. The improvement in heart and lung function will complement your efforts in strength and flexibility training, as well as endurance activities. Like strength training, the workouts must be structured to ensure continual progress and avoid plateaus. Many times clients ask me if a certain exercise is a good cardiovascular workout. Anything that gets your heart rate up in your training range and maintains it for at least 20-30 minutes qualifies. So pick your poison-Stairmaster, anyone?
Personal trainers often talk about writing exercise prescriptions for their clients-setting up precise training plans based on the client’s goals, fitness level, and current physical abilities. This provides a structured path and allows for periodic testing to assess progress. You can follow the same procedure in formulating a personal workout and diet plan for yourself. Think of this process as mapping a route for your exercise program. Without a roadmap, how will you know where you’re going and the most effective way of getting there? How will you know if you’ve taken a wrong turn or need to alter course? Goal setting , planning, and constant evaluation will provide the framework for a successful trip.
The first step is determining what your goals are. Where do you want to go-what do you want to accomplish? Where are you now-what is your current fitness level? How will you get there-how will you go about it? What will it take? Completing a journey in a set period of time requires great commitment and self-discipline to stay on schedule-you must have a strong desire to reach your destination. Goals should be challenging but attainable-an easy trip doesn’t inspire a sense of urgency. As with all plans, roadblocks will pop up along the way. Be prepared to make adjustments.
Once you have some definite goals in mind, take the following steps:
1. Write them down, being as specific and detailed as possible. This will give you direction and be a constant reminder of what you’re working toward. Place your list of goals somewhere that you will see it everyday-on your refrigerator, in your organizer, taped to the wall. Tell family or friends about your plan-this adds accountability to the trip (much like having to answer to that highway patrolman if you deviate from the speed limit.)
2. Set a deadline for each goal. List all long-term goals, and then break them down into shorter-term goals: monthly, weekly, daily. This detailed time frame will make your plans more realistic and achievable. A goal of losing 40 pounds in 6 months seems much easier when it’s broken down to 2 pounds per week. Later you will be able to see if you’re on course to reach your goals, and make adjustments if necessary.
3. Identify obstacles you may encounter along the way, possible solutions, and any sources of help you may need. Will there be periods of difficulty in scheduling, social situations, financial issues? Will you need the support of family and friends to reach your goals? Be aware of negative influences that may derail your plans. Will you require additional knowledge? I’ve found my most successful clients are the ones who are most curious-they will read every bit of information they can find on nutrition and exercise. Take an active interest in learning everything you can to further your progress.
4. Using the details of the previous steps, formulate an action plan with specific strategies (your roadmap). List all the activities involved for each goal and prioritize them. Rewrite and polish the plan until it is clear and concise. Break your goals into nutritional, training, and lifestyle strategies.
5. Set up a system for motivation and rewards. Visualize: what you want to look like, winning that 10K race, perfecting your sport. Reward yourself each week or month when you reach a particular goal-get a massage, a special night out, a favorite treat. Little motivators like these can help you stay on track.
Once your goals and action plan are in place, it’s time to construct the specific workouts and nutritional approach. For example, here’s how a plan might look for Janet, a 30 year old female who wants to lose 40 pounds. She has complained about being overweight, feeling weak, having a lack of energy, getting out of breath when climbing stairs, and losing the shape she had at age 25. Assuming she has been cleared by her physician to exercise and has no outstanding health problems, she sets the following goals:
Losing 40 pounds in 6months (losing 40 pounds would put her at her ideal bodyweight)
Losing 3 inches off her waist
Increasing strength, endurance, and muscle tone
Although this last goal may not seem specific and quantifiable, it actually is-with a little fitness testing. Current strength can be measured and recorded in various lifts and bodyweight exercises. Cardiovascular endurance can be assessed by doing a modified treadmill test-adjusting resistance (speed or incline) and measuring heart rate response every couple minutes, for a period of 10-12 minutes. Muscular endurance can be determined by performing various exercises to muscle failure. Tape measurements of body parts and body fat testing can be used to record changes in muscle tone. Additional statistics, such as bodyweight, resting heart rate, and blood pressure , will complete the benchmarks for progress.
Now she has some measurable goals and knows her initial fitness level and abilities. Monthly, weekly, and daily goals can be adjusted based on results of the fitness tests. >From there, it’s time to formulate a workout plan.
Based on her current goals, she sets up a program of 3 hour long strength training sessions per week, with 4 days of cardiovascular work. (Luckily, she had a friend who was a trainer to give her a little advice). Each cardio session will run 30-40 minutes, maintaining a heart rate within 55-80% of her maximum. Both types of workout are necessary-strength training to increase lean muscle mass and help elevate metabolism, with cardio for calorie and fat burning. She can perform the cardio workouts following the strength training. Workouts will be done every other day, with the 4th cardio session on a day off. Flexibility will need to be maintained with daily stretching following the workouts.
Nutritionally, she will need to get an idea of how many calories she’s taking in each day and where she needs to cut back. Keeping a written record of everything she eats and drinks each day will help to identify eating habits-what’s eaten, portion sizes, number of meals per day, time of day of meals, and where she’s eating-at home, eating out, a packed lunch at work, etc. After filling this out for a week, she will immediately be able to identify trouble spots-junk foods, sweets, empty calories, total number of calories. She will also be able to get an idea of her daily intake of protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Goals can be set to gradually include more fruits and vegetables in the diet while reducing saturated fats, sugar and salt.
Daily goals will consist of completing and logging the workouts and meals. Weekly, she can weigh in and see how things are progressing. Monthly, measurements and fitness assessments can be performed, as well as analyzing progress from the workout logs. Adjustments to the program will be made as she determines if things are proceeding on schedule to meet her goals. If she’s not losing 2 pounds per week, she has several options:
Increase the frequency and/or time of the cardio sessions
Reduce calories further, again looking at portion size and ratios of protein/carbohydrates/fats
Analyze the strength training workouts for progression and intensity
This roadmap is a constant work in progress, continually checking and adjusting to increase efficiency and progress made. With careful thought, planning, and follow-up, any program can be successful. Once you reach your destination, start planning your next excursion. Successfully completing a difficult journey will inspire you to start another, and lead to future triumphs. Where do you want to go next?
What’s the number one complaint you hear in most gyms and health clubs?
“I’m not getting anywhere with my workouts.”
“I’m not getting results like I used to.”
“I’m training harder than ever, but I’m still not ____________(losing weight, gaining size, etc.)”
Sound familiar? I find that every time I take a closer look at these complaints, a common factor emerges. Typically, the person is on a program where they do the exact same exercises, in the same order, each time they do a particular workout. Whether on a circuit routine, upper/lower body split, or training individual muscle groups, the story is usually the same.
The human body adapts very quickly to any stress put on it. While any well-planned program can produce results, if it is not changed or varied occasionally it will not succeed in the long run. How is this best accomplished?
I want to let you in on a little training secret that I and many trainers use with our clients:
Never do the same workout twice!
It’s a simple philosophy, but when followed, will ensure consistent progress without the plateaus many experience in their routines. Now keep in mind that other factors can come into play when you’re not progressing: poor diet, lack of sleep, overtraining, poor exercise form (but that’s another article!) I want to address the workout program itself, and how you can control the direction it takes.
For example, let’s take a look at a typical gym member I’ll call John. John is very diligent, and works out 3-4 days a week. He has been training for a number of years, with a goal of adding more size and muscle definition to his body.
Lately his progress has stalled, and I observe him as he’s performing the chest and arm workout below:
Barbell Bench Press
Barbell Incline Press
Lying Triceps Extension
Standing barbell curls
Seated Dumbbell curls
(With each exercise, he does 3-4 sets of 8-12 repetitions).
After watching him train, I can see he’s very focused, using proper form and gradually increasing his weights on each set . So what’s the problem? He’s been doing this same routine for over a year! His body has adapted to the particular stress he’s placed on it, and he will not see any further progress until he makes some changes. Just a little tweaking and modifying of this program will make a difference in the results. He can even retain the same basic structure, while shaking things up a bit.
The concept of never doing the same workout twice is easy to implement.
All you need to do is vary the equipment used, angle, body position, weight, number of repetitions, order of exercises, hand position, etc.
For instance, a barbell bench press is a compound movement that works the chest, shoulders and triceps. Look at all the options John has available to vary this exercise and the manner in which it’s performed:
Dumbbell bench press
Dumbell Chest Press on a Stability Ball
Push-ups on a Stability Ball
Chest Press Machine
Cable Chest Press
Resistance band chest press
(There are even more possibilities, but you get the idea).
Wide/medium/close grip on the barbell bench press
Drop Sets-Performing as many repetitions as possible with good form using a heavy weight, dropping to a lighter weight and continuing, finally dropping to an even lighter weight , and repeating once more before resting..
Superslow repetitions-Taking 5-10 seconds on each part of the movement, lowering and raising the bar or dumbell in a slow, continuous manner.
Supersetting-Doing the bench press with another exercise for the chest or opposing muscle group before resting.
Order of exercises-Performing pectoral flyes before the bench press (pre-exhaustion principle).
Giant Sets-Doing 3-5 different exercises for the same muscle group in a row before resting (this is done using lighter weights and is a real shock for the body, so it should only be done occasionally-think of it as a jumpstart for your muscles).
Lighter weights and higher repetitions-this is part of the concept of per iodization-varying the volume and intensity of training for optimal strength gain and progress.
The above examples give a great deal of variety in just one single exercise, and they can be applied to any movement. John could use these same principles to vary his exercises for each muscle group. The key is to analyze what you did in the previous workout, and do it a little differently the next time. The body will constantly be adapting , and the variety in movements, angles, weight, balance and muscle coordination will keep it continually challenged and progressing. This process also eliminates boredom-it’s a new workout each time you go into the gym.
Give these tips a try and and watch your workouts produce better results. Remember:
Never do the same workout twice.
“The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results.”
-attributed to Ben Franklin, among others